A timeline of the common era, otherwise known as anno domini

Timothy Comeau • MMXVIII

 

1st century

Films depicting this era: Ben-Hur (1959), Barabbas (1961), Satyricon (1969), I Claudius (1976), Jesus of Nazareth (1977), The Passion of the Christ (2004), Risen (2016), Paul: Apostle of Christ (2018)

0

10

c. 15: Apollonius of Tyana born

20

26-36: Pontius Pilate

29: John the Baptist begins his ministry

30

3-5 April 33: The First Easter

c.37: Conversion of Saul of Tarsus - becomes St. Paul

37-41 Jan 24: Caligula reigns as Roman Emperor

40

40: Paul travels to Jerusalem to meet Peter & James

41-54 Oct 13: Claudius is Emperor

43: Roman conquest of Britain begins, and foundation of London

48: Council of Jerusalem

49: Since the Jews constantly made disturbances at the instigation of Chrestus,[6] he [Claudius] expelled them from Rome." (referenced in Acts 18:2)[7]

50

Nov 21 52: St Thomas arrives in India

59: Paul shipwrecked on Malta

60

62: James stoned to death in Jerusalem

64 July 18: Great Fire in Rome

c.64/67: execution of St. Paul

66-37: First Jewish-Roman war

70

70: Destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem

70: Gospel of Mark written in Rome

79: Destruction of Pompeii

80

c80: Didache written; Gospel of Mathew written; Gospel of Luke

90

c.90-110 The Book of John is composed

c.97: death of St. Timothy, companion of Paul

2nd century

Films depicting this era: Gladiator (2000)

100

c. 100: Apollonius of Tyana dies

104: Invention of paper in China by Cai Lun

110

120

122-132: Hadrian's Wall

130

132-135: Bar Kokhba's revolt

140

150

160

170

180

190

193: Roman year of five emperors

3rd century

200

210

220

230

240

250

c. 253: death of theologian Origen

260

270

280

290

4th century

300

303: Persecution of Christians by Emperor Diocletian

310

28 Oct 312: Constantine's Battle of the Milvian Bridge: after a vision of the cross in the sky, Constantine adopts the Chi Rho as his symbol and defeats Maxentius; 29 Oct: Constantine enters Rome and is proclaimed Emperor Caesar

320

321: Constantine decrees Sunday as day of rest

325: Council of Nicea

330

330: Constantine makes Constantinople the empire's second capital

340

346: Public pagan worship prohibited

350

356: Pagan temples closed

360

364: Pagan temple revenue confiscated

370

380

390

393: Theodosius decrees all pagan practices are to be eliminated

5th century

Films depicting this era: Agora (2009), Restless Heart: The Confessions of Augustine (2012)

400

404: The last gladiator competition in Rome.

408: a decree that all pagan temples are to be used for other purposes

410

Aug. 410: Three day sack of Rome by the Visigoths

413: Augustine begins City of God

415 March: death of Hypatia

420

426: Theodosius orders the destruction of all Greek temples; Augustin's City of God published

430

430: death of St. Augustine

432: St. Patrick begins mission to Ireland

440

450

460

470

476: Fall of Western Roman Empire

480

490

6th century

500

510

520

524: Boethius Consolation of Philosophy

525: Dionysius Exiguus' easter table created the concept of anno domini

530

536: Climatic event likely due to volcanic activity; crop failures, recording of dim sunlight

540

First recorded bubonic plague (Plague of Justinian) in Constantinople and Byzantine Empire

550

550: St. David converts Wales; crucifix becomes Christian icon

560

570

580

590

Pope Pelagius II dies of plague; Gregory the Great elected

7th century

600

610

610: Muhammad's first revelation at Mt. Jabal al‑Nour

612: Muhammad begins preaching

620

630

632 Jun 7: Death of Muhammad (p.b.u.h); beginning of the Muslims conquest

640

642: destruction of the Library of Alexandria

650

660

670

680

690

8th century

700

710

720

c.722: St Boniface cuts down Thunor's oak

730

740

750

760

770

771 Dec: Charlemagne becomes king of the Franks

772 Summer: Charlemagne destroys the Irminsul.

776: Charlemagne ordered the Saxons to be baptized.

780

781: Alcuin met Charlemagne.

782: Charlemagne ordered the beheading of 4500 prisoners

785: Charlemagne ordered the refusing baptism, offering sacrifice to demons, cremating a body, or eating meat during Lent would be punished by death.

790

796: Charlemagne's policy of forced baptism was eased.

797: Alcuin is appointed the abbot of Tours. Here his work with the monks developed more contemporary script and books.

9th century

Films depicting this era: The Last Kingdom (2015)

800

Charlesmagne crowned Emperor

810

814: death of Charlemagne

820

830

830: establishment of the House of Wisdom in Baghdad

840

841: foundation of Dublin by Vikings

846: Saracen pirates sailed up the Tiber and sacked St. Peter's and St. Paul's Outside the Walls.

850

850-875: settlement of Iceland by the Norse

860

870

871: English King Alfred the Great crowned

880

890

10th century

900

907: Loire Vikings invade Brittany

910

919: The first use of gunpowder in a conflict: the battle of Langshan Jiang in China

920

927: Kingdom of England becomes unified state

930

940

950

960

970

980

990

11th century

Medieval

1000

1001-1008: Shikibu's The Tale of Genji

1010

1020

1030

1040

1050

1060

1066: William the Conqueror, England

1070

1080

1090

1095: Pope Urban II launches the First Crusade

1096: first lectures at the University of Oxford

1099: First Crusade's siege of Jerusalem

12th century

Medieval

1100

1110

1119: Knights Templar founded

1120

1123: future priests must be celibates

1130

1140

1144: Robert of Chester's translation of the Arabic Book of the Composition of Alchemy.

1147-49: Second Crusade

1150

1160

1170

Dec 29 1170: Murder of Thomas Becket

1180

1185: first record of windmills

1189-1192: Third Crusade (The Knight's Crusade)

1190

1197: Crusade of Henry VI/German Crusade

13th century

Medieval

Films depicting this era: Labyrinth (2012), Knightfall (2017)

1200

1209: Cathar massacre at Béziers & Carcassonne

1210

1218-1224: Genghis Khan and the Mongol invasions

1220

1230

1240

1240: at a tournament near Düsseldorf, sixty knights are killed

1247: death of Robin Hood

1250

1260

1270

March 7 1274: death of Thomas Aquinas (b. 1225)

1280

1290

1291: Siege of Acre

1296: the memoirs of Marco Polo

14th century

Medieval

Films depicting this era: Knightfall (2017)

1300

1309-1377: The Avignon Papacy

1310

1307 Fri. 13 Oct: The arrest of the Templars

1312: The Knights Templar are disbanded

1315-1317: The Great Famine kills millions in Europe

1320

1330

1337: The Hundred Years War begins between England & France

1340

1347-1351: The Black Death in Europe

1350

1360

1370

1378: supposed birth of Christian Rosencreuz, founder of the Rosicrucians

1380

1381: Peasants' Revolt in England

1390

15th century

medieval ⇒ renaissance

medieval ⇒ renaissance

Films depicting this era: Life of Leonardo da Vinci (1971), Henry V (1989), 1492: Conquest of Paradise (1992), The Messenger (1999), The Hollow Crown (2012-16)

1400

1407: supposed foundation of the Rosicrucian Order

1410

1420

1429: Joan of Arc ends the siege of Orleans

1430

1431: Execution of Joan of Arc; Henry VI crowned (Eng)

1440

1441: death of Jan van Eyck, painter (b.1390)

1450

1453: Fall of Constantinople to the Ottomans; end of Byzantine Easter Roman Empire

1458: Gutenberg's Bible

1460

1470

1477: Canterbury Tales

1478: the attempted assassination of the Medicis during High Mass in Florence Cathedral

1480

1484: Pied Piper murders 130 children; supposed death of Christian Rosencreuz at age 106

1485: Battle of Bosworth; Henry VII defeats Richard III

1490

1490: Savonarola's first Bonfire of the Vanities

1492: Jews expelled from Spain; Columbus lands in the New World; death of Pope Innocent VIII; elevation of Pope Alexander VI (11 Aug)

1494: Spain and Portgual sign the Treaty of Tordesillas and agree to divide the World outside of Europe between themselves.

1495: first syphilis outbreak in Naples

1498 May 23: execution of Savonarola in Florence

1499: Michelangelo's Pieta

16th century

renaissance

Films depicting this era: Life of Leonardo da Vinci (1971), Orlando (1992), Elizabeth (1998), Shakespeare in Love (1998), A Waste of Shame (2005), The Virgin Queen (2005), The Tudors (2007-2010), Anonymous (2011), Wolf Hall (2015)

1500

1501: over a thousand printing shops now in Europe

1503: Death of Alexander VI; elevation of Pius III, who died less than a month later; elevation of Julius II; Da Vinci's Mona Lisa

1505: death of Russia's Ivan the Great

1509: Henry VIII crowned

1510

1512: Michelangelo completes Sistine Chapel ceiling fresco

1513: Death of Julius II; elevation of Leo X; Ponce de Leon reaches Florida; Machiavelli publishes The Prince

1516: Thomas More's Utopia

1517: Cardinal Wolsey in England hangs sixty May Day rioters; Pope Leo X's jubilee sale of indulgences; Luther posts his Ninety-Five Theses

1519 May 2: Death of Leonardo da Vinci (b.1452)

1520

1520: Luther excommunicated; the rifle is invented

1524: peasants' revolt in Germany

1525: Tyndale's translation of the New Testament into English

1528: Plague in England

1530

1531-32: The Church of England breaks with Rome and recognizes Henry VIII as head of the Church

1533: Henry VII divorces Catherine, marries Anne Boleyn, who gives birth to Elizabeth I

1534: Luther translates the Bible into German

1535: Thomas More executed

1536: Anne Boleyn executed; Tyndale executed; Erasmus dies

1540

1543: Copernicus' De revolutionibus orbium coelestium

1547 28 Jan: Death of Henry VIII; death of Francis I on 31 March; Edward VI crowned

1550

1553: Mary I crowned

1558 Nov 17: Elizabeth I crowned

1560

1564: Death of Michelangelo (b. 1475); birth of Shakespeare

1570

1572: Pope Pius V dies; Pope Gregory XIII elected

1573: Tycho Brahe's De nova stella

1580

1585: Pope Gregory XIII dies; Pope Sixtus V elected

1590

1590s: Flourishing of Shakespeare's career

1590: Pope Sixtus V dies; Pope Urban VII elected but dies twelve days later; Pope Gregory XIV elected

1591: Pope Gregory XIV dies; Pope Innocent IX elected but dies two months later

1592: Pope Clement VIII elected; Galileo Galilei is appointed professor of mathematics at University of Padua

17th century

the baroque

Films depicting this era: Cromwell (1970), The Last Valley (1971), The Mission (1986), Black Robe (1991), The Devil's Whore (2008), The Great Fire (2014)

1600

1603 March 24: death of Elizabeth I; crowning of James I

1605: establishment of Port Royal Nova Scotia (Annapolis Royal) by French colonists; Pope Clement VIII dies; Pope Leo XI elected but dies less than a month later, Paul V elected

1609: Kepler publishes Astronomia nova; Galileo builds his first telescope

1610

1610: Galileo's Sidereus Nuncius; observes the mountains of the Moon and Jupiter's moons; July 18 death of Caravaggio (b. 1571)

1614-17: Rosicrucian pamphlets published

1616: death of Shakespeare (b. 1564); the Vatican warns Galileo against believing in Copernicus' solar-system as proposed by his 1543 book and places De revolutioniubus orbium coelestiumm on the Index

1618: Beginning of the Thirty Years War (ended 1648)

1620

1621: Pope Paul V dies; Pope Gregory XV elected

1622: the Rosicrucian posters in Paris

1623: Pope Gregory XV dies; Pope Urban VIII elected

1626: Charles I crowned

1630

1631 May: Sack of Magdeburg during Thirty Years War, 25,000 killed

1632: Galileo's Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems

1633: Cardinal Richelieu subsidizes Sweden's participation in the Thirty Years War; French invade Lorraine; Jacques Callot's The Miseries of War; Galileo sentenced by the Inquisition for heresy and puts his Dialogue on the Index.

1637: Japan's suppressed rebellion and the closing of its borders; Descartes' grid-system published

1638: Galileo's Dialogue Concerning Two New Sciences

1640

1641: Decartes Meditations

1642: Death of Galileo

1642-1651: The English Civil War

1648: Peace of Westphalia ends the Thirty Years War and establishes the modern concept of the nation-state

1649: Charles I executed

1650

1653-1658: Oliver Cromwell is Lord Protector

1660

1660: the Royal Society founded in England

1661: Charles II crowned

1664: New Amsterdam becomes New York

1665: the plague in London

1666 Sept: The Great Fire of London

1668: Isaac Newton builds his reflecting telescope

1669 Oct 4: death of Rembrandt (b. 1606)

1670

1670: Hudson's Bay Company founded

1680

1685: James II crowned

1687: Newton's Philosophiae

1689: William III (of Orange) crowned

1690

1692: Salem witch trails

1692-94: famine kills 2 million in France

1694: Bank of England established

18th century

the enlightenment & rococo

Films depicting this era: The French Revolution (1989), Aristocrats (1999), John Adams (2008), Poldark (2015)

1700

1702: Queen Anne crowned

1707: Act of Union create Great Britain

1714: George I crowned

1710

1720

1727: George II crowned

1730

1740

1750

1750: Death of Johann Sebastien Bach in Leipzig

1755: English troops expel Acadians from the Maritime provinces of Canada

1760

1761: George III crowned

1770

1776: American Revolution of declaration of independence

1780

1789: French revolution

1790

19th century

the industrial revolution

Films depicting this era: The Great Train Robbery (1978), Wilde (1997), Topsy-Turvy (1999), Byron (2003), Deadwood (2004), The Assassination of Jesse James by the Coward Robert Ford (2007), Bright Star (2009), Mr. Turner (2014), Victoria (2016), Mary Shelley (2017), The Terror (2018)

1800

1810

1814-1815: Congress of Vienna

1815: Final defeat of Napoleon at Waterloo

1816: year without summer due to a volcanic eruption in Indonesia; composition of Frankenstein by Mary Shelly

1820

1821: George IV crowned

1830

1831: William IV crowned; dies 1837

1838 28 June: Victoria crowned

1840

1850

1860

Apr 9 1860: earliest recorded sound

1861-1865: American Civil War

1867: Confederation of Canada

1870

1880

1890

1896: Olympic games revived in Athens

20th century

the industrial  ⇒ digital revolution

1900

1901: death of Queen Victoria

1902: Edward VII crowned

1903 Dec: first flight by the Wright brothers

1910

1911: George V crowned

1914-1918: World War I

1917: The Russian Revolution leads to the establishment of the USSR

1918-1920: the 'Spanish Flu' pandemic kills over 17 million people.

1919: Paris Peace Conference

1920

League of Nations established. (Dissolved 1946)

1930

Global economic depression

1936: Edward VIII crowned; abdicates

1937: George VI crowned

1939: Beginning of World War II

1940

1939-1945: World War II

1945: Nagasaki & Hiroshima Japan are destroyed by nuclear bombs which had been developed in secret by the United States; nuclear weapons are revealed to the world.

1945: United Nations established

1950

1952: Elizabeth II's reign begins, crowned a year later

1956: Suez Crisis

Post World War II politics shifts to the Cold War between the United States and the USSR as both threaten each other with a proliferating arsenal of nuclear weapons

1960

1961: Yuri Gagarin orbits Earth; first person in outer space

1962: The Cuban Missile Crisis

1963: the assassination of the United States president

1969 July 20: first moon landing

1970

Late 70s: desktop "personal" computers are developed for hobbyists

1980

1980s: Personal computers begin to be sold

1989: A series of revolutions in Communists countries brings down the Communist block and the USSR itself dissolves in 1991.

1990

1990s: Personal computers become ubiquitous

1990s: Portable "cellular" phones begin to be sold

c.1995: the academic computer network Internet goes public with the development of World Wide Web software by Tim Berners Lee; the web explodes and new a economy begins around it

1994: Amazon.com, an internet store, begins operation

1998: Google search engine goes live on the World Wide Web

1998: Alibaba, a Chinese web store, begins operation

21st century

2000

2000s: Portable telephones become ubiquitous and later morph into pocket computers when they become touch screen devices late in the decade

2001: Nine Eleven terrorist attack destroys the World Trade Centre skyscrapers in New York City

2001-2014: UN forces occupy Afghanistan following the Nine Eleven attack

2003-2011: Iraq War

2005: Pope John Paul II dies and Pope Benedict XVI is elected

2007: Apple Computers releases the iPhone, heralding the switch for portable telephones to become pocket computers

2010

2010: Arab Spring: a series of revolutions in primarily Islamic countries leads to the Syrian Civil War (ongoing as of 2020)

2013: Pope Benedict XVI resigns; Pope Francis elected

2014: Rise of Islamic State in Syria & Levant, later known simply as ISIS captures territory in Syria and Iraq and proclaims a short-lived caliphate.

2015-2018: Various Islamic terrorist attacks in France

2016: Donald Trump elected president of the United States, defeating Hilary Clinton who was expected to win; suspicion of ties to the Russian government shadow Trump's presidency.

2019: Jan 3, a Chinese probe lands on the far side of the Moon. Apr 15: Notre-Dame Cathedral in Paris is severely damaged by a roof fire.

2020

2020: The COVID-19 virus emerges in China, leading to worldwide quarantines as it becomes a global pandemic, killing over a million people. A Chinese lunar probe returns samples of the Moon to Earth for the first time since 1976.

2030

2040

2050

2060

2070

2080

2090